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Archive for November, 2009

Philly’s Corner:  Dedicated to the health and welfare of companion animals

These Five Freedoms are contained in the BC SPCA Charter  and    express the dedication of the BC SPCA  ensuring that all animals are healthy, happy and cared for.

“Freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition
Freedom from discomfort
Freedom from pain, injury and disease
Freedom from distress
Freedom to express behaviour that promotes well-being”

As new parents, you are the Alpha/ Pack Leader in your family, your companion animal, be it dog, cat, ferret, bird, rabbit to name a few, will turn to you for every need.  You took on the role of provider and care giver, making a lifelong commitment which could be up to 15 years, you considered the time and energy, the veterinary/health care costs and more importantly the responsibilities and obligations that come with pet ownership.

Unlike human children our pets cannot tell us when they are just not right, so it is up to us to keep a vigilant eye open for problems.  Regular vaccination is just part of what is needed to ensure your pets continued health.  A firm believer in that prevention is worth an ounce of cure, detecting the early onset on health issues can and often saves your pets life.  Veterinary care can be extremely costly, catching a problem or health issue quickly in the early stages not only provides immediate relief and care for your animal but it also makes it easier on your wallet.

All animals when ill/distressed will exhibit signs manifested in behavior different from the norm for that particular animal.  While home remedies can provide some relief from non critical illness and minor injuries (small abrasions) it is best to seek veterinary diagnosis and treatment as quickly as is possible.  Having a first aid kit for your animal is a good practice.  Include in your kit Saline Solution (to wash abrasions and skin irritation), Steptic powder to aid in blood clotting (open wounds) Telfa Pads and Nexcare flexible bandage that is self adhering, antibiotic ointment such as Polysporin, Veterinary medications such as Surolan (ear drops),  Vitalax (for the removal and prevention of hair balls in cats and kittens), Diarsanyl (an oral paste which aids in coating the Intestinal Mucosa) (for tummy upsets and diaherria) (note you can get this for dogs and for cats).  Get other suggestions from your vet, he will be happy to supply you with a list of items to have on hand.

Watch for signs of pain including abnormal posture and immobility, your pet may remain abnormally quiet, is withdrawn and not as alert as normal.  Movement may be stiff or the animal may not want to move at all. These are the usual signs of severe pain.  The injury/disease may be internal and not visible as in spinal injuries and nerve damage (animal does not react to stimuli),  head trauma (dilated pupils, eyes do not react)  internal bleeding / injuries (gums are very pale) and poisoning (vomiting, distorted abdomen).

An animal in “low intensity pain” may experience shivering, may whimper or even howl, possibly growl without any form of provocation, noticeable increases in breathing and panting maybe present, the animal often becomes restless and more alert.  Skittishness when you attempt to examine your animal, for example if you try to check a leg, hip, ear;  licking of the painful area and sometimes scratching of the area will give an indication.  Further in this form of painful discomfort your dog may be anxious, they may experience increased urination , prefer cold surfaces to lay upon and often will hold their tail between their legs, sometimes there may be penal erection.

In cats the behavioral  signs may be a little different in that the cat will tend to find a quiet place to hide, facial expressions such as apprehensiveness and creased forehead may be visible, the cat may cry, yowl and even hiss when approached or attempts are made to move the animal.  Cats do purr when content, however excessive loud purring is often an indicator that something is wrong.  Facial swelling, excessive drooling and pawing at the face as an example may indicate an obstruction in the mouth  or worse an infected tooth which requires immediate veterinary care to prevent toxins being distributed to vital organs such as the liver and heart.

With any animal it is important to recognize the onset of health issues, to catch them early before they get worse and possibly threaten the life of the animal.  Bouts of diarrhea, blood in the stool/urine, vomiting, head shaking, excessive scratching, discharge from the eyes and nose, skin lesions, both internal and external parasitic infestation;  all of these if left untreated properly can result in severe complications and could result in death. As an example, some animals are allergic to flea bites and to mites contained in soil and grasses.  Excessive licking and scratching of an area can and often will lead to a bacterial infection of the skin that rapidly spreads throughout the animal being carried by the blood stream.   New areas of the body become affected, hair loss, open lesions, oozing sores can result quickly.  An untreated ear or eye infection can leave the animal permanently deaf or blind.

The quality time spent with your companion is a priceless gift, providing a strong and lasting bond and unconditional love.  This quality time can be used to detect any signs of trouble.  During regular grooming/cuddling sessions you can pay particular attention: Running your own hands completely over every inch of your pet can help you pick up on tender areas, bumps or lumps that suddenly appear, skin lesions or abrasions, areas that the animal does not wish you to touch, is the coat dry, does the skin appear flaky, is there excessive shedding?   A quick check of the ears, are they red inside, have a foul odor ( an indicator of infection);  are your pets eyes bright, pupils not dilated, free from discharge and not bloodshot?  Watching your pets movements both during quiet and play time..are there signs of stiffness, limping,  favoring a hip or paw, walking a little off balance?  Remember to also check that collar to ensure it is not too tight, that hair is not matting around it, that it has not cut into the flesh.  Rule of thumb, it is too tight if you cannot get three fingers beneath it.

Exercise caution when trying to examine an injured or ill animal.  Cats can be extremely skittish, become aggressive, those claws and teeth can do some real damage, believe me I know. Totally wrapping your cat in a thick towel/blanket thereby limiting movement can protect you, wearing long sleeves and even gloves is another good option.  Have someone assist you if necessary.  Your normally sweet gentle dog may snap, even bite if in severe pain.  Remember it is not their fault, they are distressed and very scared. The trust that you have built with your pet comes into play here, more often than naught, they will realize that you are trying to help them and allow themselves to be examined.

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Posting alert provided by Animal Alliance of Canada
Coyotes are under fire in Saskatchewan.  Below is an excerpt from a November 10, 2009 News Release from the Saskatchewan Ministry of Agriculture.
BJORNERUD ANNOUNCES SASKATCHEWAN COYOTE CONTROL PROGRAM
Today, Agriculture Minister Bob Bjornerud announced the Saskatchewan Coyote Control Program.
The program is intended to help the many farmers and ranchers who are having trouble with coyotes killing their livestock. The provincial government will pay hunters a bounty of $20 per coyote killed.
“Many Saskatchewan farmers and ranchers are struggling to protect their livestock from coyotes,” Bjornerud said. “I hope this program helps address this serious issue and I appreciate SARM and its members working with us to deliver the program.”
The Saskatchewan Coyote Control Program is a pilot program that will run until March 31, 2010, at which point the provincial government will consider extending it.
“In many areas of the province livestock producers have been experiencing losses due to the high coyote populations,” SARM President David Marit said. “We appreciate the provincial government has recognized this problem and has introduced this new program.”
“We are pleased Minister Bjornerud is keeping cattle producers’ interests at the forefront,” Saskatchewan Cattlemen’s Association Executive Member Ryan Thompson said. “The SCA applauds this step to assist producers in alleviating predation against livestock.”
“It’s good to see government taking action to try and solve this problem,” Lipton area sheep producer and Saskatchewan Sheep Breeders Association Board member Martin Catto said.
***
Please contact the Minister of Agriculture Bob Bjornerud (pronounced “Benrod”) by phone # 306-787-0338 or by e-mail minister.ag.@gov.sk.ca

The coyotes are depending on us all to speak out on their behalf.  This type of action is regressive and must be stopped.  Canadians must demand that governments begin to look for progressive and humane solutions to human / wildlife conflict issues.

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For those of you who have not spent much time searching the Net on the situation here in the Northwest Territories, you likely missed seeing this:  from CJCD100 Online. http://www.cjcd.ca/archives.boa?start=80 Note that MLA David Ramsay mentions looking to other jurisdictions for up-to-date legislation.  Early in my campaign for very real Animal Protection for the Northwest Territories, I sent via registered mail, every APA from across Canada to the GNWT in order that these individual Provincials Acts and the Yukon’s,  may be used as a template. The Federal Criminal Code of Canada Animal Cruelty Laws were also sent to them in this package.   The Federal Criminal Code of Canada is the Law of Canada and irregardless that the NT does not have an effective APA in place, the Federal Laws of Canada do apply to everyone anywhere in Canada.   My campaign for an APA for the NT began in the summer of 2007 and as I state in the following:

“Most definitely that span of time should have seen some positive change forthcoming..thus far it has not”. Excerpt from my recent email to three of the MLA’s supporting Animal Protection.

While discussions on the Amendments to the Current NWT Dog Act closed this past summer, and while the GNWT received a detailed critique from the Animal Defense League of Canada on these proposed changes whereby the ADLC  made their own recommendations , (I did as well) and despite letters which I have received from the Ministers of Justice and Municipal and Community Affairs reassuring me that the Amended Dog Act (as “an interim measure” while they continue to work on a comprehensive APA) would soon be in place (first by Fall and most recently now January 2010);  as MLA D. Ramsay points out it is now November.  My question and it should be yours as well….What is the Problem?  Why as pointed out by Mr. Ramsay has this not gone to committee yet?  Personally,  I would like to know just who is  sitting on this critical piece of legislation and why? You should want to know that as well. Note that in this recent email of November 21, 2009 to the MLA’s who are supporting the APA I provided internet links on the research done proving the  Animal Cruelty and Human Violence Connection as recognized by policing authorities around the world. Links to these studies were provided in a recent Blog that you can check out yourselves.

Further excerpt from my recent email to MLA’s:

“Granted that one may cite the government process is slow and that there may be issues considered to be far more pressing, the issue of Animal Cruelty in the NT is one which will not go away.  It is an issue that has drawn a very negative light upon the NT (both in Canada and globally) and private citizens who have approached me, who report incidents to me, who raise the question why the Animal Cruelty Laws contained in the Federal Criminal Code of Canada are not being properly utilized, why the provisions under the current archaic Dog Act are not being utilized and why Municipal By-Laws are not being enforced.  They are disheartened, fed up and want to see positive change.  They want to believe and feel confident that when they report incidents of animal cruelty to Town officials and RCMP that their complaints and reports will be taken seriously, not dismissed as irrelevant or told that other case loads are precident. They want to see animals in crisis seized and given the proper care needed, they want to see offenders facing charges and not just receiving a mere slap on the wrist.  They want to see a stop put to abandoned, starving, beaten, neglected, heads being bashed in, shooting and throats being slashed.”

“It is imperative that positive change be implemented now, not when the time can be found to dedicate to committee reviews. “

I am eagerly waiting for a response to this letter emailed yesterday November 21, 2009.

Please be aware that ‘Action for the Protection of Northern Animals’ is now a new Group on Facebook, all those who wish to raise their own voices and awareness of this crisis situation in the NT are invited to join.  Your comments of support will greatly aid the cause in getting this needed legislation, the animals cannot wait any longer.


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Policing authorities around the world are fully aware of the Link between Animal Cruelty and Violent acts against Humans.  The reports, research papers and documented cases are far too numerous to account for here.

Below are links to resource materials should any of you choose to take the time to see for yourselves.  Violence and Cruelty Against Animals is seen as a very real and accurate Barometer for predicting future Violence against Humans.

When Violent Acts of Cruelty and Neglect against Animals go unpunished the stage is being set, and we all are left to wonder what is going on in this world.  I truly believe that the measure of Society and Human Morales  can be gaged by the way that Animals are subjected to horrifc acts of brutality.  It is a crisis situation not only in the Canadian North but in every Human Society across the Globe.

Recently Canada has been invited to participate in the Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare; the House of Commons resumed from October 1 consideration of the motion. http//www2.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Mode=1&Pub=hansard&Language=E

You may also sign yourselves in support of this Universal Declaration by going to:

http://www.makeanimalsmatter.ca/share

Please take the time to view the links below and learn about the LINK between Animal Cruelty and Violence Against Humans.

http://www.childresearch.net

http://canadianveterinarians.net/animal-abuse-link.aspx
http://cfhs.ca/info/the_violence_connection/
http://www.animallit.ca/2009/01/sled-dogs-starved-frozen-to-death-in.html
http://www.thestar.com/News/Canada/article/509315
http://www.wspa.ca/latestnews/2009/animal_cruelty_still_goes_unpunished_in_canada.aspx

 

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Please go to the link provided to watch the video involving the rescue of approximately 100 severely neglected sled dogs in the province of Quebec.

http://sn112w.snt112.mail.live.com/default.aspx?wa=wsignin1.0

When I received this request for help requesting donations, I immediately responded with the following response below and I am happy to say that a reply email from HSICanada was forthcoming, that this issue here in the NT is being passed onto their Campaign Manager.

My Response to thier initial Alert:
This goes on constantly here in the Northwest Territories where there is no Animal Protection Act whatsoever. I am currently aware of at least 100 if not more huskies and smaller breeders that are in exactly the same situation right now in one location where I live and nothing is being done about it. Many communities in the NT have a strict shoot to kill on sight policy, dogs and puppies routinely rounded up and shot. Dogs left to starve and freeze to death and the owners are not prosecuted, RCMP turning a blind eye. For the last 26 months I have brought International attention to this situation, shone a negative spotlight on the NT to the point where the GNWT is Amending the Current Dog Act (pertains to dogs only) they are working towards a comprehensive Animal Protection Act for here as well but the process is slow. Mushers have opposed such protection and regulations for decades. Animals of all ages continue to remain chained, starving, neglected, dumped, abandoned and brutalized in the NT. We have no proper shelters here, no animal hospitals to speak of. Our town and neighboring area must rely on a travelling vet who comes up once a month from Alberta. Critically sick and injured animals must be flown to Yellowknife or shot. There are no laws to truly protect animals other than the Criminal Code Animal Cruelty Act, however it is not enforced. Even municipal By-Laws are ignored for the most part.

It is time that Humane Society International Canada came to the North to witness for itself the true state of animals up here.

Even PETA got involved in the Tuktoyaktuk case, to no avail. Animals left frozen to death on the ground, others shot and 3 surviving dogs left in the care of the abuser, despite desperate efforts to have them seized and rescued by the Director of the Beaufort Delta Regional SPCA. Her pleas to RCMP were pushed aside, no charges were laid and the animals remained with the abuser. Also the case of the 44 sled dogs in Bechoko destroyed due to malnutrition, Dene Artist has charges stayed by Crown, then there are the4 (1 1/2 wk old) puppies found at Bechoko dump with throats slashed just recently, only one survived; animals are found tied to trees and gunshot left to die, or found at the town dump in the Beaufort area, their muzzles ducked tapes and heads smashed in, bestiality…we have it all in the NT. The Dir. of the Beaufort Delta Regional SPCA has her hands full 99.9% of the time, Linda works tirelessly, heartbreaking work which often goes without support from legal authorities: See Blog articles on Tuktoyaktuk cases. It is she who was involved with the two dogs that were shot and left to die and who also found and humanely euthanized the animal frozen to the bottom of his doghouse. Are charges laid, 99.9% of the time never.

You do good work, how about doing some of that good work here in the Northwest Territories?

Animals need to be heard, need to be respected, need to have a voice and laws need to be taken seriously. I am from Ontario, moved north in 2005 and am sick, disgusted and appalled at what takes place up here..hence I have been fighting this with the government for 28 months to get positive action. The Animal Defense League of Canada has been of great support. I submitted over 3000 signatures from Canada and around the world to the government, (including the scathing comments from the I write and have published articles on Animal Care and Welfare for our local paper, media interviews about my work have been published, interviews with Linda have been published…and our work continues in seeking justice and betterment for animals here.

Go to my blog on wordpress: giftofloki.wordpress.com and see for yourself. Go thru the Archived material and get a look at the secrets of the North. I am attaching two horrific cases published by News North and also a picture of a dog abandoned found still alive frozen to the bottom of his doghouse in the Beaufort Delta Region where temps go -50 celcius, he was humanely put down, the other pic is of a young female found in my town in 2007 that prompted my immediate action for real legislation here.

Give your voice and your efforts to helping animals here in the NT, the situation here has been in crisis for decades. These helpless victims should not be forgotten.

Thank you for your time.

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I found this and many other poems on the Internet and I believe that this message says it all, far too many wonderful, beautiful animals continue to be neglected.   The priceless unconditional love that they have to give is cast aside; their need for companionship denied them, how can they possibly understand …they cannot.  Please raise your voice for those who continue to suffer so greatly.

ALONE AGAIN

I wish someone could tell me
What it is that I’ve done wrong,
Why I have to stay chained up
And left alone so long.

They seemed so glad to have me
When I came here as a pup.
There were so many things we’d do
While I was growing up.

They couldn’t wait to train me
As companion and as friend.
They told me they would never fear
Being left alone again.

The children said they’d feed me,
Said they’d brush me every day,
They’d play with me and walk me,
If only I could stay.

But now the family hasn’t time.
They often say I shed.
They wont allow me in the house,
Not even to be fed.

The children never walk me.
They always say, “Not Now!”
I wish that I could please them.
Won’t someone tell me how?

All I have is love, you see,
I wish they would explain,
Why they said they wanted me
Then left me on a chain.

From The Detroit News 2/25/1999
Author Unknown

Look into the eyes of the two  ‘working dogs’ in desperate need below, located in Tuktoyaktuk, NT the others were shot, 3 were found dead and frozen to the ground. (Temperatures along the Beaufort Sea drop to -50 celcius) To view their full story go to the  January/February Archives. Despite desperate efforts nothing was done to rescue these two survivors and no charges were ever laid.

Legacy of the North Victims Pokiak's dogs

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Mother and Daughter starving in Tuk found April 29 2009

This mother and daughter above were discovered in April 2009 in the Beaufort Delta Region by the BDRSPCA Director.  Both these animals were malnourished, without proper shelter and chained outside, subject to -40 to -50 celcius temperatures.

The “Five Freedoms” are contained in the BC SPCA Charter and express the dedication of the BC SPCA  ensuring that all animals are healthy, happy and cared for.


“Freedom from emotional distress – By ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering”

“The PCA Act defines Distress as follows: if an animal is:
a)    Deprived of adequate food, water or shelter,
b)    Injured, in pain, sick or suffering
c)    Abused or neglected”

By Definition, the terms:
“Well-Being includes both emotional and physical health”.

“Physical Well Being: the animal is free from clinical symptoms of disease and does not show evidence of current or old injuries left untreated;
Emotional Well-Being:  the animal shows evidence of normal behaviour and an absence of abnormal behaviour (specific to the species).”

All animals will and do suffer extreme stress, just as do humans, when their basic needs are withheld from them. Just as
in humans, physical and mental trauma, food/water deprivation, and their surrounding environment play a key role in the emotional and physical well-being of an animal.

Animals respond very much the same way that humans do to their surroundings and to the way they are treated.  Those that are abused, beaten, tortured and abandoned experience fear, despair, hopelessness and worst of all pain.  Pain not only from the physical but emotionally as well.  While physical scars may heal in time, the memories of their abuse, neglect and mistreatment remain.  Anyone who has rescued/adopted a severely battered or neglected animal knows this.  My own canine companions are clear evidence of  the emotional suffering they endured.

Animals also experience joy, contentment, enthusiasm, curiousity and playfulness.  You s the Pack Leader, the Alpha in your home, your dog looks  to you for guidance, interaction, education, comfort and protection.  If injured or frightened he/she will come to you for comfort and help,  happy to see you when you come home, the excitement is evident in tail wagging and displays of affection;  grabbing the leash or jingling the car keys and you are witness to an explosion of enthusiasm;  throw a ball, walk, run, play tug of war and experience the exuberance of your own youth and that of your companion.  Cats while often aloof, will snuggle up content and the purring begins.

Animals also experience the pain of losing a loved one.  Devoted dogs and cats have been known to ‘pine away’ at the
death of a beloved owner.  Refusing to eat, falling into deep depression, remaining by that favourite chair of the deceased, refusing attempts to play or interact.  Ever so slowly they will die if their spirits cannot be uplifted.

All animals, be it dogs, cats, birds, pet rabbits or ferrets to just name a few, very much need interaction with their human parents.  They need your reassurance that they are loved, cared for, safe and more importantly respected.  As a parent you are responsible for providing their every need.  Their emotional and physical well-being is dependent upon you.  The more time you spend in pleasurable interaction with your animal companion, the stronger the bond, the greater the devotion and of course that unconditional love you will receive.

The Following is a summary of the existing Federal Criminal Code, Animal Cruelty Act: Bill  S-203. The Criminal Code is the Federal Law that is in force everywhere in Canada and which applies to every person in Canada.

Section 446 of the Federal Criminal Code states:
You are guilty of an offence if you:

a.    willfully cause or allow unnecessary pain, suffering, or injury to an animal;
b.    by willful neglect cause injury to animals while they are being transported;
c.    abandon an animal or fail to provide it with enough suitable food, water, shelter, and care;
d.    participate in any way in the fighting of animals (example: arranging or attending a cockfight or dogfight);
e.    administer a poison or injury-causing drug to any domestic or captive wild animal or allow this to happen
(example: poisoning a neighbor’s cat or spraying a dog with oven cleaner);
f.    are involved in any way with the release of captive birds for the purpose of shooting them;

Section 429 of the Federal Criminal Code defines “willful” in the following way:

“If you cause something to happen, either by doing it or by not doing something you should do, and you know what the results will be, you are considered to have done so “willfully”.

Under Section 446

(c) abandon an animal or fail to provide it with enough suitable food, water, shelter, and care;

(Examples: which may be considered to be a “willful” act:   failing to feed an animal could be, since you know that an
animal will starve if it is not fed. Failing to provide proper shelter to protect animal from elements, leaving an animal in a vehicle during hot summer, not providing clean fresh water on a daily basis resulting in dehydration, depriving a sick /injured animal of medical care. Beating and/or abandoning an animal).

Any person found guilty under Section 446 of the Criminal Code can be fined up to $2,000, sentenced to up to 6 months in jail, or both. In addition to this, the Judge can make an order prohibiting that person from having an animal or animals for up to 2 years.

“By definition within the Act:
a) Adequate food means:  providing for sufficient quantities of suitable food to allow for the normal growth and maintenance of normal body weight;  that all food bowls are kept clean/disinfected and located in an area preventing
contamination from excreta. “

b)    “Adequate food does not mean:  feeding the animal once a week because an owner may prefer a slim animal.” (An animal whose rib cage, hip bones, back bones can be visibly seen is not being fed properly, thereby constituting willful neglect.)

c)    An animal not being provided with daily ongoing fresh supplies of clean watercan and will suffer from dehydration.
Fresh water does not mean a pool of dirty rainwater or 2-3 week old water left in a slimy bowl or bucket.

d)    Adequate shelter does not mean: “putting up an old canopy in the backyard to keep the animal dry”.  Adequate
shelter means:  providing a shelter constructed properly to ensure that the animal is protected from the heat , the
dampness and cold; it must be appropriate to climate conditions of the region as well as the “weight and protective outer coat of the animal.”

Section 448 of the Federal Criminal Code states:

“For the purposes of proceedings under paragraph (1)(a) or (b), evidence that a person failed to exercise reasonable care or supervision of an animal or a bird thereby causing it pain, suffering, damage or injury is, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, proof that the pain, suffering, damage or injury was caused or was permitted to be caused wilfully, or was caused by wilful neglect, as the case may be.”   (In other words the state and condition of the animal is proof of willful intent.)

For purposes of this Act, under Section 1(3) “person responsible for an animal” identifies two individual types covered by the Act:

Those that own the animal or individuals who have control or custody of the animal.

Important to note that while some communities within the N.W.T. do have By-Laws pertaining to the standard of care for animals, as well as By-Law Officers whose job it is to enforce these Municipal By-Laws and the current N.W.T. Dog Act (soon to be revised January 2010) it must also be noted that under the current N.W.T. Dog Act: R.C.M.P. are “exacto”.

The following is quoted from a letter submitted to GNWT Justice and MACA Ministers from the Animal Defense League of Canada pertaining to the proposed Amendments to the N.W.T. Dog Act:

8.b)    Discussion Paper: “Scope of the Problem”:
“ to avoid the issue of “wilful intent” the RCMP can lay charges under the Dog Act  which provides as follows: “2.(2)
Members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police are, by virtue of  that office, officers under this Act.  S.N.W.T. 2008, c.8, s.7(2).”

This means that by virtue of the legal authority held by RCMP to uphold all aspects of the Federal Criminal Code including the Federal Cruelty to Animals Act and the N.W.T. Dog Act charges can be laid for violations not only under the Federal Criminal Code but the current N.W.T. Dog Act as well.

Furthermore:
8.a) Discussion Paper:  “Legislative Arrangements”
(paraphrased) Conviction under Criminal Code requires proof of “intent”.  Not so for conviction under “quasi-criminal”
legislation.  Therefore the preferred option is to proceed with a charge under the provincial or territorial animal protection legislation, or under a municipal bylaw.”

Recognizing the Signs

Signs of Chronic Stress include:
1)    Depression
2)    Weight loss or poor weight gain
3)    Depleted immune system
4)    Poor Body and Coat condition
5)    Secondary parasites
6)    Reproductive failure

Dehydration : Sunken Eyes, Loss of Skin Elasticity
a) due to lack of fresh potable water, water withheld, not provided
b) normal bodily processes:  defecation/urination; sweating and respiration
c) abnormal processes:  diarrhea, excessive urination/respiration and vomiting

“70% of total body weight is composed of water”, any  animal/human  suffering Dehydration is, if left untreated,
facing a horrific death. All bodily functions depend upon  a proper electrolyte balance. When Cells begin to lose their
water content, electrolyte imbalance takes over, the needed H2O oxygen normally circulated by electrolytes becomes depleted, gradually organs begin to shut down.  Left untreated, the animal/human will die.

Starvation: (Underweight, skin and bones, poor coat condition, immune deficit, skeletal structure visible, weak, lethargic) due to the failure to provide proper and adequate nutrition to the animal. This constitutes willful neglect. A horrific and lengthy way to die as the animal’s own system begins to feed on its own muscle tissue and bone marrow.

Quoted from Environment and Natural Resources Website:
http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/_live/pages/wpPages/starvation-malnutrition.aspx

“Starvation or malnutrition occurs when an animal is not able to get the amount of nutrients from food that it needs.”
(Applies to all animals be it wildlife or domestic)

“What are the signs of starvation-malnutrition?”

“Animals may be weak with not much body fat. The skin may appear loose with a dull, rough hair coat. Animals may have humped or sagging backs, sunken eyes, and small tucked up bellies. The bones of the shoulders, ribs, back and hind end may stick out.”

Hypothermia (decreased body temperature): due to lack of proper protection and shelter and extreme climate changes: “Any reduction in body temperatures results in system slow down.  Eventually, the body cannot remove toxic wastes nor produce energy and it ceases to function”.  The very same process in humans.

Hyperthermia (increased body temperatures): due to lack of proper shelter, being left inside vehicles during summer, lack of backyard shade.

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